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Ethanol is the dominant biocomponent in the gasoline market. Edible ethanol is produced by fermentation of sugar-containing feedstock. Production of fuel ethanol from cellulosic feedstock is under commercialization phase. Industrial ethanol can be produced from petrochemical ethylene by the acid-catalyzed hydration, but this cannot be used to meet bioenergy obligations. Ethanol is a monomolecular compound with narrow boiling point, whereas gasoline consists of hundreds of different hydrocarbon molecules. Ethanol is aromatic-, olefin- and sulfur-free compound. Oxygen content of ethanol is 35%.


IEA AMF work on ethanol:

  • Annex 54, 2016–2019 "GDI Engines and Alcohol Fuels", download report (key messages).
  • Annex 52, 2015-2017 "Fuels for Efficiency", download report (key messages).
  • Annex 46, 2013–2015 “Alcohol Application in CI Engines”. Neat alcohols can be applied at very high compression ratios in diesel engines with the same performance as conventional diesel fuel by applying ignition improvers ." download report (key messages)
  • Annex 44, 2012–2014 “Research on Unregulated Pollutants Emissions of Vehicles Fuelled with Alcohol Alternative Fuels” E85 fuel generally reduces CO, NOx, aromatic hydrocarbons and particulate matter emissions when compared with gasoline. Acetaldehyde and ethanol emissions increase at cold start before the catalyst is warm. download report
  • Annex 36, 2007–2010 “Measurement Technologies for Hydrocarbons, Ethanol, and Aldehyde Emissions from Ethanol Powered Vehicles”, The alcohol is, per definition, not a hydrocarbon. The alcohol content can be measured separately, and the FID measurement can be adjusted for the alcohol part. This is not performed in all emission regulations. download report
  • Annex 35-2, 2010-2014: “Particle measurements: ethanol and butanol in DISI engines", The results indicate the use of E85 as a transportation fuel is effective in mitigating PM increases from GDI vehicles. download report (key messages)
  • Annex 35-1, -2008 : “Ethanol as fuel for road transport”, download report
  • Annex 26, 2002-2005: “Alcohols and Ethers as Oxygenates in Diesel Fuels”, download report
  • Annex 10, 1995-1997: “Characterisation of New Fuel Qualities”, download report
    Annex 4, -1994: “Production of alcohols and other oxygenates from fossil fuels and renewables”, download report
  • Annex 1, -1986: “Alcohols and alcohol blends as motor fuels”